Saturday, March 14, 2020
Dracula Essays - Fiction, Literature, English-language Films Dracula Bram Stoker's Dracula The setting of the story begins in 19th century Europe, in the eerie country of Transylvania. The story begins with a solicitor from England named Jonathan Harker is sent by a business man to meet with an old Count named Dracula at his castle located far from civilization. Residents of Transylvania who become aware of his destination begin crossing themselves and giving him garlic and blessings. As a result of these gestures, Mr. Harker soon develops an uneasy feeling about visiting the mysterious Count. He arrives at Castle Dracula regardless, and makes his acquaintances with Dracula. He soon realizes that the count is no normal human, but an evil, blood-sucking vampire, who can command animals and elements with the wave of his hand. Harker escapes but the Count has devised an intricate plan to move to London and exercise his evil forces on innocent people there. However, a group of friends, including an open-minded, but ingenious professor, a psychologist, an American, a rich man, as well as Jonathan Harker and his wife Mina, learn of the Count's sinister plan and pledge to destroy him before he can create an army of un-dead vampires. They systematically destroy his coffins with holy wafers and chase him out of England back to Castle Dracula. There they carry out an ultimate plan to destroy Dracula. The Author uses suspense as a storytelling device rather effectively throughout the story. There are a fair number of parts in which the reader is left suspended on the edge of seat, eager to find out what is to happen next. However, there were parts where suspense could be used in a manner that would enhance the gravity of the plot. Nonetheless, The book is written in a unique way that allows suspense to be used easily and effectively built up. Dracula is written in first person like many other novels but then it differs slightly. The book starts off as a first person Journal of the first character describing his experiences. But then it switches to someone else's journal, and then to letters between two characters, and later to a newspaper article. It follows this pattern roughly throughout the book. At various points, the plot builds up with one character's journal and then it jumps to another character's journal so that you must read a ways through it before the exciti conclusion to that particular event is revealed. At other times deductions must be made on what a character has written to ascertain what has occurred. There is a good example of this when the first character, Jonathan Harker, is imprisoned in the castle close to sunset and knows that the Count will attack him that night. His journal ends as he describes what he might do to escape. But the success of his escape is not evident until the first part of his fiancee's journal is completed. This sort of suspense can be quite frustrating and annoying at times. Thus it's purpose is often defeated and the plot suffers. But there is also the more prevalent type of suspense used where the character is on the verge of an important discovery or he is in a dangerous predicament but the author is slow to divulge what is to happen. When the suspense was used properly, it proved to be both interesting and very dramatic. In conclusion, Bram Stoker's Dracula turned out to be a very exciting and fascinating nove l. The plot was well structured and was very suspenseful. The author used his historical knowledge of Europe, particularly Hungary and Transylvania, very well in conveying a certain idea in the book. For example, Count Dracula was described as a noble of the Magyar peoples of eastern Europe who fought valiantly against invaders during the 14th and 15th centuries. Full insight was given into the minds and personalities of almost all of the well developed characters. Initially, the Count remained somewhat mysterious for a specific reason. This allowed for the main characters to slowly discover who the Count really was thus developing the character slowly for the reader. The intrigue built into his character intensified the mystery. Suspense was used extensively throughout the novel. The book probed
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Evaluation of Beck Depression Inventory - Essay Example The reliability and validity of the test was shown to be very strong with reliability coefficients ranging from .77 to .89 in different studies and a strong correlation with scores of other common instrument. The tool was also shown to be valuable across several settings from clinical, through counseling to research purposes and finally, the strength and weakness of the instrument were considered. The Beck Depression Inventory is a psychological test that is widely acknowledge and accepted. The test was first created by Beck and his colleagues in the 1960s; however, since then the reliability and validity of the instrument have been examined in several languages amongst several populations and the general efficiency of the test as an instrument for measuring cognitive values has been widely established. The Beck Depression Inventory comes in questionnaire form that allows for self evaluation based on a point grade system of the questions contained in the questionnaire. Arnault, Saint, Shinji Sakamoto, Aiko Moriwaki (2006) reports that a study has been carried out with a Japanese population that validated the use of the instrument, Chellappa and Arajo 2006 also reported a validation of a Portuguese version of the test among a Brazilian sample, while Carano et al. (2006) also reported a stock taking and evaluation of the Psychometric properties of the test after twenty five years carried out by Beck et al (1988) Obviously, Beck Depression Inventory has undergone serious and several tests of validity, reliability and efficiency, and in most cases, the value of the instrument in measuring depressive symptoms have been credibly established. Purpose, Design and Format of Beck Depression Inventory In the commonest cases, and perhaps, as the name of the instrument suggests; Beck Depression Inventory is an instrument that is used for taking 'inventory' of the depressive tendencies and/or depressive symptoms in a sample population. It is sometimes used in conjunction with other psychological tests to evaluate other forms of cognitive values, for instance, Zywiak et al (2006) made use of BDI as an instrument to predict negative affect relapses in men undergoing formal treatment for alcoholism. However, in most cases, Beck Depression Inventory is aimed at measuring the severity of depression in a population. The questions of the instrument are so designed as to evaluate the patients' self report of activities, moods and behaviors for signs of depression symptoms and the severity of the symptoms, if present. In this regard, the instrument contains twenty one items that focuses majorly on the cognitive symptoms of depression. Each items in the instrument is rated on a four-point Likert-type scale with scores ranging from 0 - 3. The sum of the points of all the items in the instrument indicates the BDI score of the client, which is also an indication of the presence or otherwise, and the severity of depression in the client. The total possible score of the instrument is 84. A BDI score of between 0 and 9 is regarded as lack of, or minimal depression, total BDI scores of 10 - 18 is an indication of mild depression, while a total BDI score of 19 - 29 is an indication of moderate depression, any score above 29 is an indicati
Monday, February 10, 2020
Exclusionary rule - Essay Example It was applied in 1955 in California supreme court in a case between people V. Cahan, so by almost 1960, 22 sates in USA adopted the rule, this are califormia, Delaware, Frorida, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, north, Caolina, Oldahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, Tennesse, Washington, Texas, west Vigina, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Michigan. Also Exclusionary Rule does not bar the introduction of all evidence obtained in violation of the fourth, Fofth, or Sixth Amendment in case of Criminal case. See Hudson V. Michigan, 547. U.S. 586, 126 S. Ct. 2159 (june 1, 2006), justice scalia write for U.S. Supreme court. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exclusionary_rule)Suppression of evidence, however, has always been our last resort, not our first impulse. The exclusionary rule generates "substantial social costs," United States v. Leon, 468 U.S. 897, 907 (1984), which sometimes include setting the guilty free and the dangerous at large. We have therefore been "cautious against expanding" it, Colorado v. Connelly, 479 U.S. 157, 166 (1986), and "have repeatedly emphasized that the rule's 'costly toll' upon truth-seeking and law enforcement objectives presents a high obstacle for those urging [its] application," Pennsylvania Bd. of Probation and Parole v. Scott, 524 U.S. 357, 364-365 (1998) (citation omitted).
Thursday, January 30, 2020
The Airasia Company Strategic Management Essay Nowadays, the competition among airplane industries is very tough. According to Daniel Chan (2000), with just about two years to go to the turn millennium, air wars over Asia are hotting up, with some of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest airlines engaged in intense over Asian skies. Each Of Airplanes Company in the world trying to conduct some strategies to compete with another competitor in their industry. A lot of airplane companies come out with different strategies to make their company better than their competitors. To compete with their competitor in the business environment, a company needs to make a strategy to achieve their long terms objective and can be successful for doing their business. Moreover, to be successful in their long terms objective and their business, company need to identify their strategic management, because with good strategic management company can be achieving their vision and mission to achieve the successfulness in their business. Regarding this issues, the strategic management becomes important due to the following reason such as globalization to survival their business, and than e-commerce become the critical success to the company nowadays. The two following reason are need to take into consideration, and than to be successful in the company management, a company needs to consider the company ability and how to integrating it with the as well as main factor in the internal and external factor. The main factor in the internal and external factor can be identified with SWOT analysis. The internal factor can take a look into strength and weakness in a company, and for the external factor, a company can look at opportunities and threats in the external environment. Furthermore, according to Daniel Chan (2000), the airline industry is a unique and fascinating industry. It captures the interest of a wide audience because of its glamour, reach, and impact on the large and growing numbers of consumers/travelers worldwide. Based on this statement, airline industry become the greatest opportunity for AirAsia. The growing numbers/travelers worldwide can be the wonderful opportunity for AirAsia for running their business. In addition, to captures and attract a customer to choose AirAsia as an airline option, AirAsia need to develop and create a wonderful strategy and come out with special offering to their customer to successfully in their business. On this paper, I would like to identify and analyze the AirAsia Company strategic management: Ã¢â¬Å" How AirAsia can be a leader in the lowest cost carrier in the airplane industryÃ¢â¬ . IÃ¢â¬â¢m interested to more deeply identify and analyze the strategic management in AirAsia Company because AirAsia have a lot of achievement and awards since year 2001 until present and than they have the greatest strategy which is can make AirAsia to be a leader in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s low cost carrier in airline industry. And than, AirAsia is one of the companies with good company strategic management and has a successful story in the airplane industry in the world. AirAsia now becoming the leading low cost carrier airline in the world and the achievement that AirAsia received to ascertain that AirAsia is one of the best airplane companies. The achievement that AirAsia received in 2009 on the last awards and recognition is the best low cost airline in the world. In Addition, on this paper will be structured into four sections. Section 1. 0 is introduction, Section 2. 0 covers about AirAsia Current issues, in this section will be discusses about why AirAsia need to consider a strategy, and AirAsia current issues. Section 3. mainly discusses about AirAsia business strategy, this section also will be discusses about why AirAsia stressed to be low cost carrier in airline industry, AirAsia SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat) analysis, and also AirAsia business strategy to solve the current issues. And than, section 4. 0 would be the last section is conclusion for this paper. 2. 0 AirAsia Current issues: how to be low cost carrier lead er in airline industry On this section, I will discuss about the AirAsia current issues: how to be low cost carrier in airline industry. This section involve, why AirAsia need to consider a strategic management, and than what is the current issues that happen in AirAsia Company. This section will discusses the importance of developed and consider strategic management in AirAsia Company, and identify of current issues in AirAsia Company. 2. 1 Why AirAsia need to consider a strategic management Why a company needs to consider a strategic management nowadays? According to Daniel Chan (2000), since the 1970s, the competition for the Asian air travel market has always been intense. This became more intense in the 1990s as traffic volumes were squeezed. Based on that statement, the competition among airplane industry will become more grow, traffic volume also would be increase, and also the Asian air travel market has always been intense. When the competition in the airplane industry becoming though, complex, and rapidly change, AirAsia company as a company that joined in the airplane industry business need to thinking strategically and also must preparing a good strategic management. The AirAsia strategic management needs to effectively and efficiently prepare and implement in the AirAsia company management. Why AirAsia need to consider strategic management? The first reason is because the airline industry is a unique and complex industry. Based on the statement, the complexity and unique of the airline industry, AirAsia need to come out with the greatest strategy to compete with their rival in the same industry. Without the right strategic management, its possible AirAsia could not be able be compete with the complex business environment in the airline industry. Furthermore, the second reason why AirAsia need to consider a strategic management because in a company nowadays, general management which is the process of achieving organizational goals by engaging in the four major functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling may not sufficient and supportive for the organization succeed in the world of complex environments. It concerns about the process to manage the company internally but do not concentrate more on creating competitiveness regarding environments affecting the organization. Even companies adopt general management to sustain profitability by reducing the defects or costs, and improving operations process in order to increase productivity, they may not succeed in the competition because they perform only similar activities better than competitors but do not create distinctive competitiveness. Additionally, they perform only operational effectiveness but not strategy. Operational effectiveness and strategy are both essential to superior performance but they work in very different ways.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Who can dare say they have never encountered a conflict? No one is without conflict; there will never be a person who says they have never faced a problem. What is a conflict? Most think an opposition or a struggle of some nature. It can be that and more, to state it simply its man vs. anything; that anything can be nature, God, self, and even fellow man. Many of these can be observed in ParkerÃ¢â¬â¢s Back written by Flannery OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor. ParkerÃ¢â¬â¢s Back is a short story about a man named O.E. Parker who is obsessed with tattoos; the irony is he marries a religious woman who loathes tattoos. In ParkerÃ¢â¬â¢s Back there are three types of conflict that appear man vs. man, man vs. self, and man vs. God. Man vs. Man is a conflict that can be seen throughout the story. For example, when Parker is telling his wife Sarah Ruth about his tattoos. Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"I got most of my other ones in foreign parts,Ã¢â¬ Parker said. Ã¢â¬Å"These here I mostly got in the United States. I got my first one when I was only fifteen years old.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t tell me,Ã¢â¬ the girl said, Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t like it. I ainÃ¢â¬â¢t got any use for it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You ought to see the ones you canÃ¢â¬â¢t see,Ã¢â¬ Parker said and winkedÃ¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor 2). Sarah automatically shows her distaste for them, later on even going so far as to call Parker a fool for having them. This particular problem can be witnessed though out the rest of the story. This struggle does not end even when the audience has arrived to the end of the story. For instance, when Parker slams his hand in the hood part of the car. Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"God dammit!Ã¢â¬ he hollered, Ã¢â¬Å"Jesus Christ in hell! Jesus God Almighty damn! God dammit to hell!Ã¢â¬ he went on, flinging out the same few oaths over and over as loud as he could. Without warning a terrible bristly claw slammed the side of his face an... ...n v. self, and man vs. God are all types of conflicts that appear in the short story ParkerÃ¢â¬â¢s Back. Conflict is a major factor in the plot and structure of ParkerÃ¢â¬â¢s Back. Works Cited Andrews, Charles. "Colored Man: The Ambiguous White Male Body In "Parker's Back." Flannery O'connor Review 6. (2008): 70-80. Literary Reference Center. Web. 19 Feb. 2012. Cofer, Jordan. "The "All-Demanding Eyes": Following The Old Testament And New Testament Allusions In Flannery O'connor's "Parker's Back." Flannery O'connor Review 6.(2008): 30-39. Literary Reference Center. Web. 19 Feb. 2012. O'Connor, Flannery. Parker's Back. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1965. Everything That Rises Must Converge. Web. 19 Feb. 2012. .
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
The French Revolution of 1789 led to the development and insertion of new political forces such as democracy and nationalism which was inspired by the Enlightenment of the mid-eighteenth century. It questioned the authority of the King, priests, nobles and religion on a whole; namely Catholicism. The revolution gave new meaning to the political ideas of the people. FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in the American Revolution had left the country in a massive financial crisis.Debt, inflation a lack of food and King Louis XVI lavish spending and heavy taxation on the Commons of society served to anger the people and so they demanded a new system of government. The Old Regime and Social Stratification in France Under the system of the Old Regime the King was seen in society as being the absolute monarch whose rule was ordained my God. The King had centralized power in the Royal Bureaucracy. In unison the King and the bureaucracy preserved royal authority and maintained a system of social stra tification stipulated by the Old Regime.The society in France was legally stratified by birth, divided into three Estates. The First Estate consisting of the clergy, the Second Estate; the nobility and the Third Estate the Commons which consisted of the bourgeoisie, city workers and peasants. The First Estate, the clergy which was also made up of members from the nobility enjoyed various privileges which were unavailable to those below their station in society. They paid no taxes and to support activities of the church collected tithes or taxes on income. The Second Estate, the nobility hardly paid taxes despite their great wealth.Their source of income came from rents and dues collected from the use of their farms and estates. The Third Estate resented the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and nobility. They were forced to pay taxes, tithes to the church and rent and dues to landlords for the land they occupied. This served to cause an upset in the society as it prevented the common s from entering into upward social mobility which was primarily based on the order in which one was born. Due to these occurrences the Commons wanted to have some form of equality in the French society. Thus they were in constant negotiation with the Crown for better and more privileges.The Estates-General (1789) As a result of King Louis XVI was forced to call a meeting on Estates-General on May 5, 1789 at Versailles. This was the place where representatives from each social Estate could be represented and their grievances voiced. Social tension plaguing the Old Regime was the central grievance of those representing the Third Estate. Because the First and Second Estates were primarily made up of citizens of the nobility they were allowed to override the Third Estates as they contained two out of the three votes available. As a result the Third Estate was left voiceless.The Third Estate offered a vision that privilege in society was to be determined by usefulness rather than birth. Writers of the Enlightenment; Voltaire, Montesquies and Rousseau served to be an encouraging factor to those seeking equality in society as they viewed these privileges enjoyed by the nobility as being rooted in tradition. As a result the Third Estate invited the other estates to join a new legislature. They eventually renamed themselves the National Assembly which was based on the people rather than Estates. By doing this they revealed their intention of becoming the official legislative body of France.In the summer of 1789the National Constituent Assembly declared itself the full authority of the nation. This led to the abolition of feudalism and the system of privileges under the Old Regime. Figure 1. The Estates-General inFrance The Role of the Enlightenment The Enlightenment of the mid-eighteenth century was a philosophical movement that proposed that talent replaced birth as the main determinant of ones social standing. They believed that methods applied to studying the natura l science could be used to correct the problems of society. Advocates of this movement concerned themselves with Ã¢â¬ËreasonÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËlibertyÃ¢â¬â¢.The Enlightenment caused people to consider the view that knowledge could only be acquired through careful study and ones reasoning abilities. In order for this to be achieved religious ideology and traditional beliefs had to be forsaken. Thus they encouraged the concept of liberty which they defined as being freedom from religion, press and unreasonable government. These ideas not only inspired the Commons in France but also the politicians and Heads of State. This was what eventually inspired French revolutionaries to construct a declaration that would serve to mold a society based on reason rather than tradition.The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789) This Declaration insisted on the freedom and equality of man and gave birth to the revolutionary triad; Ã¢â¬ËLiberty, Equality and FraternityÃ¢â¬â¢ . Pu t in place by the National Constituent Assembly; was encouraged by the philosophical and political ideas of the Enlightenment. The declaration puts in place the ideology of Natural rather than religious doctrine and authority. The rights of man were to be secured and recognized by a government of elected representatives. This therefore meant an ending to privilege and feudalism; and equality in France.Clergy, nobles, judges and even ordinary tax payers lost whatever special standing they once had. Each person was now seen as being Ã¢â¬ËidenticalÃ¢â¬â¢ before the law. Figure 2. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Ciizen Saint Domingue prior to French Revolution The society in St. Domingue was a replica of the society in France plagued by the Old Regime of social stratification in France. This was introduced to the colony as the Royalist/Metropolitan Whites brought with them to the colony the traditions held by the Old Regime. Conflict between each social group was based on r ace and the acquisition of capital.Tensions between the Whites, Mulattoes and Blacks and more specifically within the white society; tension between the Royalists, Grand and Petite Blancs was plaguing the society in St. Domingue. This segregation within the colony can later be credited as one of the contributing factors of the revolution in 1791, as the French Revolution of 1789 left each group seeking equal rights and privileges within society Social Stratification in St. Domingue The Metropolitan Whites/ Royalists: These were whites who came directly from France to St.Domingue as members of the bureaucracy whose purpose was to see to the Governance of the colony. They enjoyed the commercial privileges of the French bourgeoisie and brought with them to the colony the traditions held by the Old Regime in France of absolutism of the monarchy and the ideology of feudalism. At the head of the bureaucracy was the Governor and Intendant. The KingÃ¢â¬â¢s representative in the colony was the Governor who was a soldier and aristocrat. His duty in the colony was that of granting concession, being an agent for European merchandise in the colony and colonial merchandise in Europe.The Intendant in the colony had judicial responsibilities as well as seeing to the finance and general administration of the colony. The Metropolitans had extensive privileges and power in the colony that could not be enjoyed by whites below their station. The Grand Blancs: These were wealthy plantation owners, top civil and military officers of St. Domingue. Some of whom had aristocratic origins in France while others were known Creoles. Their ambition in the colony was to regain enough wealth to return to France despite the fact that they were the most prominent of social groups within the society.The Petite Blancs: These were the poor whites of St. Domingue; primarily shop keepers, book keepers and merchants. They were seen by other superior whites as being unproductive within the society, performing no important role within the economy of the colony. It was often thought that the Mulattoes and Blacks could carry out the tasks performed by Petite Blancs if they were to be deported. They were also excluded from privileges enjoyed by the Grand Blancs, however, because they were white it was easier for them to fit into the society. The Mulattoes/Affranchis: These were the children of white planters and slaves.They were exceptionally numerous within the society with the fate of their freedom resting in the hands of their white fathers. By the mid-eighteenth century their economic advances had began to overshadow members of the white society. A number of them participated in the purchase of land and slaves, they ran their own plantations and some were allowed the privilege of being educated in France. It is argued by historians David Barry Gasper and David Patrick Geggus, that the affranchise owned one third of the colonyÃ¢â¬â¢s plantations, one quarter of the slaves and one quarter of the real estate property.Slaves: The treatment of black slaves in St. Domingue was the worst endured by slaves of the West Indies. Planters had been making immense profits in the colony to the detriment of the slaves. They were worked excessively hard, harshly punished and poorly fed. Because of this every five years the slave population of St. Domingue had to be replenished as the colony held the highest death rate of blacks within the region. Racial Tension and Discrimination in St. Domingue Prior to 1791 The Metropolitan Whites/Royalists looked upon the Grand Blancs with arrogance and disdain despite their wealth and status in society.They too however, were also resented by the Grand Blancs as they thought the Royalists to be wasteful and extravagant. They also hated the fact that they could not hold civil service positions held by the Metropolitans which meant that they had no power over the running of the colony. Similarly the most notable tension between whites can be found between the Grand and Petite Blancs. Although they were of the same colour, the Grand Blancs resented the Petite Blancs as they thought them unproductive to the economy of the colony. Due to their status in society the Petite Blancs were not able to partake in privileges enjoyed by the Grand Blancs.Voting, for example within the colony was based on the amount of property one possessed, thus the Petite Blance were exclude from the administration due to lack of land. The economic advances of the Affranchise within St. Domingue was viewed by whites as being a dangerous trend that could eventually undermine the superiority of the white plantocracy. Thus it became increasingly important to both Colonial Whites and Royalists to enforce white superiority in St. Domingue by legislating against Mulatto equality with whites by repressing their political ambitions and placing them in degrading positions n society despite their wealth and education. This was done to ensure that th e Affranchise remembered their slave origins which made it impossible for them to be equal to whites. The Mulattoes were hated by the Blacks as they showed resentment for their genealogical ties to blacks and slavery. They tried very hard to imitate the lives of the whites and saw to drown out all traces of their origin. Thus the slaves hated them as well as the whites. Due to this the slaves were feared by both the Whites and the Mulattoes as they were vastly outnumbered. Impact of the French Revolution on St.Domingue The events of the revolution in St. Domingue can be credited to the influence of the French Revolution in 1789 as it was the factor which inspired the events in St. Domingue. All social classes in the colony were greatly affected by the French Revolution as the Grand and Petite Blancs, the Affranchise and the Slaves saw the events taking place in France as an opportunity to seize liberty and equality. The Grand Blancs saw the opportunity to secure independence in the colony from the restrictions of the Mother country retarding their economic growth.Thus liberty to the plantocracy meant the removal of Metropolitan controls over the affairs of the colony. For the Petite Blancs, the impact of the ideologies of the French Revolution meant social equality with the Grand Blancs and liberty meant Ã¢â¬Ëactive citizenshipÃ¢â¬â¢ allowing them to vote freely without the acquisition of land standing in their way. For the Mulattoes in St. Domingue they thought that the revolution in France gave them the opportunity to demand civil and political rights which were denied to them because of their black origin.For the slaves equality and liberty reinforced their aspirations for personal freedom. The Revolt of the Grand Blancs The white planters in St. Domingue had began demanding political representation. The calling of the Estates-General in France in 1789 left them determined to get their interests and grievances voiced in France. Because of this the Grand Blancs supported the revolution taking place in France as for them it meant liberty from the shackles of the Mother country. For them the revolution meant freedom of trade and political control of St.Domingue at the expense of the Petite Blancs, Mulattoes and slaves. However without authority from the National Assembly, the Grand Blancs called elections in St. Domingue for a General Assembly in 1790. As a result the Petite Blancs were excluded from participating in the Assembly due to the lack of land they obtained; the Mulattoes were also excluded from partaking in the Assembly due to their lack of civil and political rights within the colony. Due to their newly found power the Grand Blancs had begun disregarding the authority of the Metropolitan whites and the National Assembly in France.Because of this the Royalist and Petite Blancs and to some extent the Mulattoes untied to crush the revolt of the planters as they preferred the Colonial ties with France and obedience to the Nat ional Assembly. Due to the defeat of their cause the Grand Blancs then turned their fury upon the Affranchise of the colony because of their role aiding the suppression of their revolt. The Revolt of the Affranchise Because of the occurrences of violence by the Grand Blancs against Mulattoes; questions concerning their civil rights and social equality were brought to the attention of the National Assembly.As such there was an attempt made to pacify the Mulattoes in the colony by allowing them equality with the Whites in the Militia. Thus in 1790 a decree was passed by the National Assembly granting voting rights and the right to hold office to all Mulatto Ã¢â¬ËpersonsÃ¢â¬â¢ owning property over the age of twenty five who met the income requirements stipulated. However, the decision to ensure the rights of these Ã¢â¬ËpersonsÃ¢â¬â¢ was left within the hands of the Grand Blancs who hated Mulattoes and refused to give them the right to vote.Because of this the Mulattoes were for ced to appeal to the Governor complaining that their rights were not being secured. The leader of the Mulattoes, Vincent Oge? threatened to use force if their demands were not met. Thus they encountered violent opposition from the colonial whites which eventually caused the movement to escalate into an armed revolt. Unfortunately the revolt was violently suppressed and leaders executed; however, as a result of the revolt a proposal was put forward by the Colonial Assembly that granted political rights to those born of legally free parents. The Revolt of the Slaves in 1791Figure 3. The revolt of the slaves The question of slavery in France was one of a complicated nature due to the fact that French commerce greatly depended on the production of their colonies which was facilitated by slavery. Thus revolution and resistance in St. Domingue became possible when slavery was challenged in France by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. The colony was under the instruction of French laws yet these rights did not relate to the blacks. To the National Assembly the exploitation of slaves was a profitable business as such they had no intention of granting them freedom.The news of the French Revolution and its triad, Ã¢â¬ËLiberty, Equality and FraternityÃ¢â¬â¢ was dispersed throughout the colony and slave population via ships and their sailors as well as French revolutionaries who believed in the equality of all. The sailors spoke in excitement to blacks unloading and loading cargo into the ships of the events taking place in France. Upon hearing this, the slaves then realized that they had witnessed similar events that had occurred in the colony to what was happening in France in the name of liberty and equality.The Grand Blancs revolt against the Bureaucracy and in 1790 the revolt of the Mulattoes to the Grand Blancs. Thus upon hearing of the success of the French bourgeoisie the slaves took it as an example which would enable them to gain freedom from their masters. The first sign of unrest within the slaves occurred when they believed that their masters were withholding three free days that the King himself had given them. The first attempt of slaves to gain their free days originated in Port-Salut in the South province.Because the masters refused to comply, the slaves were forced to engage in a conspiracy which was aimed at ensuring their masters granting the rights the King had given them. The conspiracy was however discovered and ringleaders arrested. These occurrences signaled the beginning of the revolutionary struggle of the slaves in the South Province. The slaves of the North were also greatly affected by the occurrences in the South and thus prepared a massive revolt. Simultaneously slave gatherings in the West also appeared similar to the ones in Port-Salut.After a religious ceremony headed by voodoo priest Boukman the revolt aimed at liberty for the slaves began in the North Plain District of Acul in 1791.B I B L I O G R A P H Y Books Bayan, Patrick. Ã¢â¬ËThe Haitian Revolution and its Effects. Ã¢â¬â¢ Heingmann. 1998 Brians, Paul. Ã¢â¬ËReading about the World: Volume 2Ã¢â¬â¢. American Heritage Custom Publishing. 1998 Censer, Jack and Hunt, Lynn. Ã¢â¬ËLiberty, Equality and Fraternity: Exploring the French RevolutionÃ¢â¬â¢. American Social History Production Inc. 2001 Gasper, David B. and Geggus, David P. A Turbulent Time: The French Revolution and the Greater CaribbeanÃ¢â¬â¢. Indiana University Press. 1997 Greenwood, Robert and Hamber, Shirley. Ã¢â¬ËEmancipation to EmigrationÃ¢â¬â¢ Macmillan Publishers Limited. 2003 James, C. L. R. Ã¢â¬ËThe Black Jacobins: Toussaint LÃ¢â¬â¢Overture and the San Domingo RevolutionÃ¢â¬â¢. Random House Inc. 1963 Websites Bromley, Jason. Ã¢â¬ËResistance and the Haitian RevolutionÃ¢â¬â¢. scholar. library. miami. edu. 2008 Chavis, Jason. Ã¢â¬ËThe Estate-General of 1789: Foundation of the French RevolutionÃ¢â¬â¢ french-history. suite. 101. com 2009